Before vehicle computers were invented, cars and trucks used a system of mechanical and pneumatic devices to manage systems like valve timing and idle speed.
Now, modern vehicles have a posh system of sensors and actuators connected to computers which enable the vehicles to perform well and efficiently. These electronics are confusing enough without adding a bunch of acronyms that sometimes ask an equivalent thing!
Let’s start with a dictionary so we all know what’s being mentioned during this article.
ECM is that the engine control module. this is often sometimes also called an european , which remains true because ECU (engine control unit) may be a larger category of electronic modules which incorporates other control systems (such as air con , control , airbags, anti-lock braking system). you’ll say that an ECM is an european but an european isn’t necessarily an ECM.
TCM is that the transmission control module. This unit is usually called a TCU (transmission control unit) though this will be confusing also because TCU also can ask a telematics control unit (which controls tracking and communication to and from the vehicle), a really different function entirely.
PCM is that the powertrain control module. this is often made from the ECM plus the TCM and may be a single more efficient module found in newer vehicles. Older vehicles have an ECM and a TCM.
The engine control module is usually referred to as the “brain” of the vehicle. This computer enables optimal engine performance and ideal emissions by controlling air, fuel, and spark.
The ECM works by taking in data from a spread of sensors throughout the vehicle and adjusting actuators to supply the acceptable response for things . It “decides” what response to offer by the precise way it’s programmed by the manufacturer.
For this reason, vehicles cannot substitute differing types of ECMs because the incorrect kind may cause decreased performance or maybe failure to work .
Variable valve timing, idle speed, ignition timing, fuel injection system system , emission control, control , and theft protection are just a few of the crucial things controlled by the ECM. The programming maps out exactly what must happen with each combination of numbers given by the sensors.
Some of these sensors bringing information through wires to the ECM are air-fuel sensors, oxygen sensors, MAF (mass air flow) sensors, camshaft and crankshaft position sensors (which allow the pc to calculate RPM and engine load), throttle position sensor, coolant temperature sensor, and therefore the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve sensor (for emissions information).
The ECM is so critical to the operation of the vehicle that at startup it goes through a systems check process. If any of the involved sensors afflict the idle speed during this process, the vehicle gets put into limp mode.
transmission control module
The transmission control module is what allows the transmission in automatic vehicles to shift gears. Manual transmission vehicles don’t have this because the driving force is that the TCM.
Sensors in automatic vehicles send information to the TCM in order that the transmission changes gears at the simplest time for ideal fuel efficiency and optimal engine performance.
Some sensors are the vehicle speed sensor, wheel speed sensor, throttle position sensor, turbine speed sensor, and transmission fluid temperature sensor.
There is tons of data which will be sent from variable driving conditions to assist the transmission adjust. Slope of the road, rate of acceleration or deceleration, and speed of the vehicle all affect which gear is best to be in at that moment (as manual drivers have learned).
Automatic transmissions often give the vehicle a smoother ride than manual transmissions, though in fact it depends on the programming and on the driving force respectively.
The powertrain control module controls the charging, emissions, and transmission systems of the vehicle. The powertrain refers to the engine, transmission, and driveline and is what gets the facility from the driver’s throttle inputs to the wheels.
The PCM is actually a much bigger “brain” than the ECM, since it often includes the ECM itself and therefore the TCM. All the sensors send data to the PCM and it responds by making adjustments for optimal engine performance and efficiency.
As these newer vehicles accrue miles, their computers “learn” how the machines operate to further increase efficiency.
The air-fuel ratio, RPM at which to shift, how brakes are applied with ABS (antilock braking system), emissions, charging system, variable valve timing, idle speed, ignition timing, fuel injection, exhaust , electronic differential performance, and t are just a couple of of the items controlled by the PCM.
Sensors include those found within the ABS system, the check engine light, throttle position sensors, MAP (manifold absolute pressure) sensor, knock sensor, coolant sensor, and oxygen sensor. Several of those will overlap with sensors listed for ECM and TCM, since the PCM replaces both of these .
An important job of the PCM is to alert the driving force to a drag by flashing codes or lights on the dashboard during a timely manner to stop damage to the car.
Vehicle electronics can become damaged by corrosion (i.e. from water) or by vibration, voltage overload, or short circuiting.
Symptoms of a Faulty Module
Since ECMs, TCMs, and PCMs have such far-reaching control, there’s a huge range of effects of a broken module. Many of those affect overall vehicle function.
The engine might not start in the least or the engine may run inconsistently (stuttering, coughing, misfiring, or stalling). Error lights on the dashboard may illuminate, which may offer you a clue on what the basis explanation for the matter is.
The transmission might not shift because it should (shifts may feel uncomfortably rough or happen at inappropriate times) and there might be a delayed response when the accelerator is depressed. These problems indicate a drag with the TCM in older vehicles that have one.
Fuel economy or emissions could also be poor. Sometimes these issues are first seen when a vehicle goes certain routine emissions testing.
Because the problems can mimic those caused by a spread of mechanical components, it’s difficult to diagnose the precise problem and electronics are often deemed the explanation for a drag only in any case other possibilities are exhausted.
If the vehicle was made after 1995, use an OBD2 reader to see for codes then troubleshoot to make sure there isn’t a drag aside from the modules. The vehicle manual can assist you with this, as you’ll want to look at all of the sensors thoroughly.
Sometimes a faulty PCM will throw a code for a given component when there isn’t actually a problem thereupon component in the least .
Replacing a Faulty Module
Once the ECM, TCM, or PCM has been isolated because the problem, check first to form sure that it doesn’t simply need an update. Computers need regular updates because the programming is improved by the manufacturer, so an update may solve the matter you’re having.
If the module is up so far but still not working, find an o.e.m (original equipment manufacturer) unit to exchange it with. Aftermarket modules, though usually cheaper, might not work since the manufacturer has exact software the vehicle must perform well and this is often difficult to duplicate .
In fact, some auto manufacturers will do things to discourage aftermarket replacement, like cause a drag which will only be cleared by a special manufacturer code. If you’ve got a more moderen vehicle, replacing a module with anything but the OEM unit may void the manufacturer’s powertrain warranty.
Installing the new module is typically relatively simple as long because it are often easily accessed. Before removing the old module, disconnect the battery first.
This way if you discover that the module isn’t actually the matter (i.e. if the new module doesn’t fix the problem) then the old module hasn’t been damaged by having the battery connected because the module was removed. Follow the vehicle manual for further instructions.